Titan, the proposed upload protocol for Gemini

Alex Schroeder alex at gnu.org
Fri Jul 3 23:16:15 BST 2020

Hi all
People on the IRC channel asked me to send an email to the list
regarding the Titan protocol I've been using for my Gemini Wiki


I'm really interested in wikis. They seem to me to be the simplest form
of collaboration in text. Simple both in because you don't need a lot
of technology to make it work, and also simple because all of the
structure, all of the processes, are things that the software doesn't
provide: it's up to people to organize themselves. I wrote a bit more
about it on my site, if you're interested.

At first, I proposed something I called Gemini+Write, and implemented
it for my site, and for a Gemini Client I was using. It was inspired by
my idea for Gopher Wiki. I know, I know. I keep bashing on that wiki
idea. Anyway, the idea is simple: to *read* from a site, you open a
connection and send a selector. Then, on subsequent lines, you send
more stuff like MIME-type, file-size, password, and so on. It wasn't

In any case, Sean Conner picked up on the idea, and started a long
thread back in June. It went a lot further than what I had in mind,
mimicking HTTP methods (GET, PUT, POST), discussed the differences
between PUT and POST, and some form of authentication that used client
certificates to allow users to edit just their pages.

Matthew Greybosch proposed to name this protocol "Titan" in one of the
replies to Sean Conner's post.

There was some resistance to the idea, and my mail setup was apparently
causing some users a bit of grief, and for both of these reasons I
didn't get involved in the discussion. I wanted to get a Gemini Wiki
working and that was all I cared about.


Sean Conner's Titan proposal had some ideas I liked and some I didn't
care for. The shortest summary is the following, from the second thread
link of his:


  The logic goes something like this [2]:

  if the request has a query, it's an upload of data---accept data.
  if the request has no query, and the path parameter (marked by ';')
    doesn't exist---error.
  if the request has no query, and the path parameter exists:
    if size==0, delete the resource
    if size>0, accept data and make the resource available.

I decided that what I really needed was just the second example he


I also needed some form of authorization (are you allowed to edit the
site) and I didn't really care for authentication (are you the person
you claim to be). I imagined my Gemini Wiki working without necessarily
identifying users. I needed some sort of token, a kind of password. My
Oddmuse wiki uses this system since 2003: there are editor and admin
passwords, and knowing one of these passwords allows you to do things
reserved to editors and admins, but these passwords aren't tied to
usernames. They're basically just tokens. You can pass them to a friend
and say: here, join us!

Thus, for my needs I need the following:


Some people used to web URIs might be wondering: where is the question
mark between path and query? The point is that this isn't a query. If
you look at the URI RFC 3986 section 3.3, you'll see what I mean.

"URI producing applications often use the reserved characters allowed
in a segment to delimit scheme-specific or
dereference-handler-specific subcomponents. For example, the semicolon
(";") and equals ("=") reserved characters are often used to delimit
parameters and parameter values applicable to that segment. The comma
(",") reserved character is often used for similar purposes. For
example, one URI producer might use a segment such as "name;v=1.1" to
indicate a reference to version 1.1 of "name", whereas another might
use a segment such as "name,1.1" to indicate the same. Parameter types
may be defined by scheme-specific semantics, but in most cases the
syntax of a parameter is specific to the implementation of the URI's
dereferencing algorithm."

So that's how I think about it. Let's look at this example again:


We want to create a new revision of "resource" and the necessary
parameters, as defined by the Titan protocol, are size, MIME-type, and

Now, you might wonder: why size? The server needs to know when the
transmission of the client ends. Remember, if connectivity is bad,
content can arrive in chunks interspersed with silence. Is the client
done? In text based transmissions, we have more options. A Ctrl-D might
be used to indicate the end-of-file (EOF). In your ASCII man page it
might say "EOT (end of transmission)". In very old tools like Berkley
mail you'd end your letter with a single dot on a line. The Gopher spec
also says that a single dot on a line ends the transmission. All of
these solutions won't work when we're talking about binary files,
however. And yes, I want a wiki where people can upload images, or
audio files, or videos, PDF files. Therefore, no particular byte or
pattern can be used. We need to tell the server how many bytes to
expect, and then the server reads exactly that many bytes, with a
timeout in case the transmission just isn't going to work.

You might also wonder: why MIME-type? Can't we just rely on file name
extensions? I guess we could. But why not use MIME-types? I've gotten
used to them. My wiki serves images called "foo" and tells your browser
via the MIME-type that it's an image/png. It allows my wiki to store
this MIME-type and serve it back in a response when clients request a
file. Otherwise I'd have to guess. I've had unhappy experiences with
/etc/mailcap files. All the programming languages do "something",
merging system mailcap files with user mailcap files and programming
language libary mailcap files, and mailcap files so much more than just
an association of file name extensions and MIME-types. They're a
nightmare. Compared to that complexity (which is often invisible to
developers, granted), I find explicit MIME-types easier to deal with.


OK, so now we've talked about the request: The client sends
n=hello followed by the CR LF sequence we all know, and then it sends
the 1234 bytes it promised to send. That's it.

Now, the client-server reaction can be a bit tricky if you're writing a
client: how do you handle an error message after the first line?
Because there will be errors. My wiki has errors for resources that
aren't editable, sizes that exceed the max size I'm willing to accept,
MIME-types I'm not willing to accept, and tokens that are not correct.
There might be more. I'm using 59 error codes for them all. I know that
Baschdel has been arguing for better error codes. The Baschdel proposal
argued for special error codes: ES for wrong size, EM for wrong MIME
type, and E_ for whatever else. Baschdel also argued that it would be
nice if a server replied with WR to say that it will in fact accept the
upload. I confess, I didn't really care for that and decided to write a
very simple implementation.

Request for Comments (RFC)

So there you have it. Uploading! Titan! 🚀🚀🎉😃

What do you think?

I'd love to see more clients supporting it. I have two independent
implementations to show how it works, both for servers and clients,
four in total:

My wiki uses a server code that interfaces with the underlying Oddmuse
wiki engine to edit pages.

My Gemini Wiki uses stand-alone code to just serve .gmi files as a
wiki, allowing users to create new ones and to edit existing ones. Note
that it is hosted on the same domain, but on a different port.

My two Bash functions "gemini" and "titan" allow a super simple
interaction with Gemini (for reading) and Titan (for writing).

I also love Emacs and so I wrote some code that allows me to edit wiki
pages from Elpher.

Anyway, let me know what you think. Let me know what you'd like to
implement for your servers and clients and what you'd need to add or
drop from this proposal.

Here's what I can see:

- the size parameter can be made optional if you only care about text
- the MIME-type can be made optional if you only care about Gemtext
- the token can be made optional if you want to rely on client

What else?

Hope to hear from you all,

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