[users] Name for Gemini-style text with links?

John Cowan cowan at ccil.org
Mon Feb 15 15:31:07 GMT 2021

On Mon, Feb 15, 2021 at 5:54 AM Luke Emmet <luke at marmaladefoo.com> wrote:

> >> Is there a known word for Gemini text-style links?
> They are simply hyperlinks because Gemini is hypertext.

Indeed, "hyperlink" is short for "hypertext link"; there were hypertexts
(in the sense of texts not necessarily to be read in a linear order) long
before there were links.  The Talmud, the book of Jewish law and culture,
is a hypertext, for example.  Each page consists of nine sections, laid out
in three columns plus margins.  In the top of the middle column is the
Mishna (1), typically a question with some basic possible answers, each
attributed to an early Jewish sage.  Below that is the Gemara (2), the
record of a centuries-long discussion and clarification of the Mishna.
Here's a fictional example:


*GEMARA: *Until eight? What does that mean? Rav and Shmuel argued. Rav
said: Until eight in the evening, for it is as my father taught: “No story
for you, young man, if you’re not in bed by bedtime.” Can it be that
bedtime is eight? Is it not written (Kohelet [Ecclesiastes], 7:30), “of
making of bedtimes there is no end”? [The cases of ] Kings are different,
as it is written, “And David addressed them, saying: “You kids don’t know
how good you have it. If I wanted a bedtime psalm growing up, I had to
write it myself.”

Shmuel said, until eight means until eight years old. From where does he
get this? As it says in *The Little Midrash [Interpretation] Says What I
Want It To*, “And Aaron said to Yochebed his mother, ‘If I hear that stupid
story one more time I swear I’ll kill somebody. Mo is six—can’t he read it
to himself?’” How does this teach us anything? Moses was six, and he wanted
the story read to him. Six, but not seven; and the Mishna which says until
eight, means up to but not including, so that we read to a seven-year-old
but not an eight-year-old. But maybe Moses was different? No, we learn the
law from Aaron, and we do not read aloud in the presence of
eight-year-olds, because of the prohibition of tempting minors to lose
their tempers.

Maybe Aaron was different, because he did all the talking and his brother
took all the credit? No, let us not say that, because it is said of Aaron
that he loved peace and chased peace and loved his brother and chased his
brother and only once was his brother rushed to the emergency room.

Rabbi Bluto ben Rav Popeye said, “Once I visited the Academy in Pumpeditha.
The sages were debating the question of eight inclusively or eight
exclusively. For seven years they argued this point, and not once did they
arrive home from the Academy in time to put their children to bed.”

Abaye once told his mother: “I do not want to go to bed. I will run away
and become a Torah scholar and hide in the study hall where you can’t find
me and they wouldn’t let you in even if you did.” Said his mother: “If you
become a Torah scholar and hide in the study hall, then I will be the
vending machine that sells you Coca Cola so you can stay up all night
learning.” “If you are going to dispense soda,” said Abaye, “then I will by
all means become a Torah scholar.” And so he did.

Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi said, “Better to read two books by Dr. Seuss than to
read *Goodnight Moon* once.” It is from here we learn of the prohibition of
ktav isha (reading writings written by women).

Every night, Rabbi Bag Bag would recite before his son. His son would say:
“Read it again! Read it again! Read it again, Abba! [Father!]”

In the right column of the page is Rashi's commentary (3), the purpose of
which is to explain the plain meaning of Mishna and Gemara to students.
The left column (4), which extends across the bottom of the center and
right columns, contains commentaries from a variety of sources.  Squeezed
into the narrow space between the middle and right columns are any Biblical
cross-references (7).

The upper part of the right margin contains cross-references to similar
parts of the Talmud (5) near the top; more cross-references, short
definitions of hard words, emendations of errors, and references to modern
commentaries (8) are placed further down.  The upper part of the left
margin contains references to major Jewish legal codes compiled from the
Mishna and the Gemara (6), and the lower part (which extends across the
bottom margin) contains any additional commentaries (9).

You can see a single page at <
with numbers on the sections.

Hypertext does have to be defined by a markup language, like the web or
> Gemini, but it is a good decentralised and scalable solution. Otherwise
> you need some sort of centralised system to define the hypertext graph -
> fine for small in-house hypertexts, but not scalable.

There is no problem with storing links out-of-band rather than embedded in
a document.  As long as the links point in one direction only, this is
perfectly scalable.

John Cowan          http://vrici.lojban.org/~cowan        cowan at ccil.org
You annoy me, Rattray!  You disgust me! You irritate me unspeakably!
Thank Heaven, I am a man of equable temper, or I should scarcely be able
to contain myself before your mocking visage.  --Stalky imitating Macrea
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